高齡少子化—台灣高等教育發展的新契機

李雅慧
國立中正大學,台灣
yahuilee@ccu.edu.tw

盧婧宜
國立中正大學,台灣
mislu0124@gmail.com

摘文

高齡化現象已成為全球的趨勢,若再加上出生率降低的影響,對一個國家的發展勢必造成重大的衝擊。台灣65歲以上高齡人口的比例於1993年達到7%,將於2018年達到14%,屆時將邁入高齡社會。另一方面,出生率從1993年的1.76人降至2011年的1.06人。然而,臺灣的大學院校卻從1991年的123所增至2013年的161所。在人口結構高齡化、少子化的背景中,加上高等教育機構急速擴張等三個因素的交互影響之下,台灣高等教育的競爭力與永續發展受到挑戰。台灣教育部在聯合國世界衛生組織(WHO)所提倡的「活躍老化」(active aging)政策架構下,鼓勵大學釋出資源與社區中的高齡者共享,並在教育部政策的支持之下於2009年在大學校園中陸續成立樂齡大學(senior citizens learning camp)。截至2013年底,在短短的四年之間,已有100所樂齡大學在台灣大學院校中相繼成立。本研究透過內容分析法,瞭解台灣的樂齡大學的課程特色、大學校園資源與樂齡大學共享的情形、高齡學習者的參與情況,最後則希望本研究可以將台灣高等教育的發展與轉型經驗提供其他國家高等教育發展之參考。

 

(Translated version)
Ageing Population and the Trend of Fewer Children – New Opportunity for the Development of Taiwanese Teritary Education

Yahui LEE
National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan
yahuilee@ccu.edu.tw

Jing-yi LU
National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan
mislu0124@gmail.com

Abstract

The rise of aging population has become a global phenomenon. Together with the decrease of birth rate, the impact is enormous for development of a country. For those above 65 years old is estimated to rise from 7% in 1993 to 14% in 2018 in Taiwan population marking the start of an ageing society. On the other hand, the birth rate has dropped from 1.76 per familly in 1993 to 1.06 in 2011. Despite of the changing age distribution, the number of teritary institutions in Taiwan has increased from 123 in 1991 to 161 in 2013. The ageing popuation and low birth rate, but the rapid expansion of teritary education, challenge competitiveness and sustainable development of teritary institutions in Taiwan. Under the policy of active aging proposed by WHO, the Ministry of Education has encouraged the universities to share their resources with aging people in Taiwan. With the support of the Ministry, learning camps for senior citizens have been set up in the universities since 2009. By 2013, 100 senior citizens learning camps have been gradually incepted. This study adopts a content analysis method for understandings of characteristics of programmes offerred by the learning camps. It also explores sharing of resources between the universities and learning camps and senior learners' participation in the programmes. The findings of this study serves as a reference for sustainable development of higher education in other countires.

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